A public service of TCC

EXECUTIVE ORDERS:
Additional Information

By William J. Olson & Alan Woll

A Service of The Conservative Caucus
450 Maple Avenue East * Vienna, Va. 22180 * 703-938-9626


Main Executive Order Page
Names of Presidential Directives (24)


Executive Orders by President

 President

   Executive Orders Issued 
 

Abraham Lincoln

    3

Andrew Johnson

    5

Ulysses Grant

    15

Rutherford Hayes

    0

James Garfield

    0

Chester Arthur

    3

Grover Cleveland 1st

    6

Benjamin Harrison

    4

Grover Cleveland 2nd

    71

William McKinley

    51

Theodore Roosevelt (4)

    1006

William Taft

    698

Woodrow Wilson (2)

    1791

Warren Harding

    484

Calvin Coolidge (3)

    1253

Herbert Hoover (5)

    1004

Franklin Roosevelt (1)

    3723

Harry Truman

    905

Dwight Eisenhower

    452

John Kennedy

    214

Lyndon Johnson

    324

Richard Nixon

    346

Gerald Ford

    169

James Carter

    320

Ronald Reagan

    381

George H.W. Bush

    166
William Clinton     287

George W. Bush

   

National Emergency Declarations (34)

 Woodrow Wilson

1. February 5, 1917 Proclamation (Wilson) -- terminated on March 3, 1921    (41 Stat. 1359)

Franklin Roosevelt

1. March 6, 1933 Proclamation 2039 (Roosevelt) -- terminated in effect by National Emergencies Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-112)

2. September 8, 1939 Proclamation 2352 (Roosevelt) -- terminated on April 28, 1952 by Proclamation (Truman)

3. May 27, 1941 Proclamation 2487 (Roosevelt) -- terminated on April 28, 1952 by Proclamation (Truman)

Harry Truman

1. December 16, 1950 Proclamation 2914 (Truman) -- terminated in effect by National Emergencies Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-112)

Richard Nixon

1. March 23, 1970 Proclamation 3972 (Nixon) -- terminated in effect by National Emergencies Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-112)

2. August 23, 1971 Proclamation 4074 (Nixon) -- terminated in effect by National Emergencies Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-112)

James Carter

1. NOVEMBER 14, 1979 EXECUTIVE ORDER 12170 -- CURRENTLY IN EFFECT: Iran I

2. APRIL 17, 1980 EXECUTIVE ORDER 12211 -- CURRENTLY IN EFFECT: Iran II

Ronald Reagan

1. October 14, 1983 Executive Order 12444 -- terminated on December 20, 1983 by Executive Order 12451 (Reagan)

2. March 30, 1984 Executive Order 12470 -- terminated on July 12, 1985 by Executive Order 12525 (Reagan)

3. May 1, 1985 Executive Order 12513 -- terminated on March 13, 1990 by Executive Order 12707 (Bush)

4. September 9, 1985 Executive Order 12532 -- terminated on July 10, 1991 by Executive Order 12769 (Bush)

5. JANUARY 7, 1986 EXECUTIVE ORDER 12543 -- CURRENTLY IN EFFECT: Libya

6. April 4, 1988 Executive Order 12635 -- terminated on April 5, 1990 by Executive Order 12710 (Bush)

George H. W. Bush

1. AUGUST 2, 1990 EXECUTIVE ORDER 12722 -- CURRENTLY IN EFFECT: Iraq

2. September 30, 1990 Executive Order 12730 -- terminated on September 30, 1993 by Executive Order 12867 (Clinton)

3. November 16, 1990 Executive Order 12735 -- terminated on November 11, 1994 by Executive Order 12938 (Clinton)

4. October 4, 1991 Executive Order 12775 -- terminated on October 14, 1994 by Executive Order 12932 (Clinton)

5. MAY 30, 1992 EXECUTIVE ORDER 12808 -- CURRENTLY IN EFFECT: Yugoslavia

William Clinton

1. SEPTEMBER 26, 1993 EXECUTIVE ORDER 12865 -- CURRENTLY IN EFFECT: UNITA

2. September 30, 1993 Executive Order 12868 -- terminated on September 29, 1994 by Executive Order 12930 (Clinton)

3. June 30, 1994 Executive Order 12923 -- terminated on August 19, 1994 by Executive Order 12924 (Clinton)

4. AUGUST 19, 1994 EXECUTIVE ORDER 12924 -- CURRENTLY IN EFFECT: Export Control

5. September 29, 1994 Executive Order 12930 -- terminated on November 14, 1994 by Executive Order 12938 (Clinton)

6. OCTOBER 25, 1994 EXECUTIVE ORDER 12934 -- CURRENTLY IN EFFECT: Bosnia/Herzegovina

7. NOVEMBER 14, 1994 EXECUTIVE ORDER 12938 -- CURRENTLY IN EFFECT: Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction

8. JANUARY 23, 1995 EXECUTIVE ORDER 12947 -- CURRENTLY IN EFFECT: Middle East Terrorists

9. March 15, 1995 Executive Order 12957 -- terminated in part on May 6, 1995 by Executive Order 12959 (Clinton)

10. OCTOBER 21, 1995 EXECUTIVE ORDER 12978 -- CURRENTLY IN EFFECT: Columbian Drug Dealers

11. MARCH 1, 1996 PROCLAMATION 6867 -- CURRENTLY IN EFFECT: Cuba

12. MAY 22, 1997 EXECUTIVE ORDER 13047 -- CURRENTLY IN EFFECT: Burma

13. NOVEMBER 3, 1997 EXECUTIVE ORDER 13067 -- CURRENTLY IN EFFECT: Sudan


Currently Effective Presidentially-Declared
States of National Emergency (14)

 Justification

   Declaration Date 
 

Pre-Clinton

Iran I

    November 14, 1979

Iran II

    April 17, 1980

Libya

    January 7, 1986

Iraq

    August 2, 1990

Yugoslavia

    May 30, 1992

Under Clinton

UNITA

    September 26, 1993

Export Control

    August 19, 1994

Bosnia/Herzegovina

    October 25, 1994

Weapons of Mass Destruction

    November 14, 1994

Middle East Terrorists

    January 23, 1995

Columbian Drug Dealers

    October 21, 1995

Cuba

    March 1, 1996

Burma

    May 22, 1997

Sudan

    November 3, 1997

Constitutional Provisions -- Emergency Powers

Congress

President

CONCLUSION: THE ONLY CONSTITUTIONAL EMERGENCY POWER GIVEN TO PRESIDENTS IS THE POWER TO CONVENE CONGRESS

"[E]mergency powers evolved after the ratification of the Constitution:

Source: U.S. Congress, Senate Special Committee on National Emergencies and Delegated Emergency Powers, A Brief History of Emergency Powers in the United States, committee print, 93rd Cong., 2d sess. (Washington: GPO, 1974), p. 5-6.


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